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董 爽1, 陆晓春2, 李金红2, 韩俊艳1
直立叶是构建合理株型和培育密植化栽培品种的重要指标之一。本研究利用甲基磺酸乙酯(EMS)诱变高粱BTX623,获得一株可以稳定遗传的直立叶突变体,暂命名el (erect leaf)。该突变体叶片从六叶期开始出现直立性状,直至整个生育期叶片均呈直立状态。抽穗期el植株倒一叶至倒七叶各节位叶长极显著缩短,叶片宽度也显著变窄;各节位叶夹角呈现先降低后增加的趋势,各节位叶枕长(除倒一叶叶枕未形成)和叶耳周长呈现与之相反的趋势。在成熟期,el植株的株高、粒长、粒宽、结实率和千粒重差异不显著;穗长、每穗粒数和生育期差异极显著。遗传学分析表明:F2分离群体野生表型和突变表型符合3:1分离比,说明直立叶是由单个基因突变引起的隐性性状。石蜡切片分析结果表明:突变体的突变性状是由于叶耳细胞的数量增加和叶耳小维管束数量增加引起的。该试验结果为进一步定位、克隆突变基因奠定基础,也为解析高粱叶片直立变化机制及密植化栽培品种的选育提供基因资源和理论支撑。
关键词:  高粱  直立叶突变体  表型鉴定  遗传分析
Phenotypic Identification and Genetic Analysis of a Sorghum Erect Leaf Mutant
DONG Shuang1, LU Xiao-chun2, LI Jin-hong2, HAN Jun-yan1
(1.College of life science and engineering, Shenyang University, Shenyang;2.Liaoning Academy of Agricultural Sciences ,The Institute of Sorghum Research)
Erect leaves are one of the important indexes for improving plant architecture and breeding dense-planting cultivars. In this study, an erect leaf (designated el, tentatively) mutant was identified by ethyl methyl sulfonate (EMS) induced mutagenesis in sorghum BTX623. The leaves of the mutant were erect from the six-leaf stage to the whole growth stage. At heading stage, the leaf length and width of the first leaf to the seventh leaf in mutant was significantly decreased. The leaf angle was larger at the lower leaves but became smaller at the upper leaves; the lamina joint length (except that the last leaf pillow is not formed) and auricle perimeter of each node showed the opposite trend. At the maturity stage, significant difference on spike length, grain number per panicle and growth period were observed while no significant difference on plant height, grain length, grain width, seed setting rate and 1000-grain weight was detected. Genetic analysis revealed a 3:1 separation ratio of the wild and mutant phenotype in F2 isolated population, implying that erect leaf was controlled by single recessive gene. Paraffin section analysis showed that this phenotype was caused by the increased number of lobar ear cells and lobar small vascular bundles. The results gained from this experiment laid a foundation for future gene cloning, and also provided gene resources and theoretical support for the analysis of the mechanism of sorghum leaf erect change and the breeding of dense planting cultivars.
Key words:  sorghum  erect leaf mutant  phenotype identification  genetic analysis