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我国野生莼菜考察及遗传多样性研究
朱红莲1, 杜娟2, 刘正位1, 孙亚林1, 李明华1, 彭静1, 周凯1, 柯卫东1
0
(1.武汉市农业科学院;2.西南林业大学园林园艺学院)
摘要:
本文对我国莼菜(Brasenia schreberi J.F. Gmel.)野生资源和栽培品种的现状进行调查,并对湖南、江西、云南、 黑龙江等地的莼菜居群进行了考察和收集,对国家种质武汉水生蔬菜资源圃已保存的6 个栽培品种及采集到的6 个野生居群 27 个样品进行了遗传多样性分析。结果表明:在卷叶颜色、叶背面颜色、叶片大小和胶质厚薄等表型性状上,莼菜野生居群 较栽培品种多样性更为丰富,分子水平分析也表明莼菜遗传多样性较为丰富(π=0.3456),野生居群的遗传多样性(π=0.3386) 高于栽培品种(π=0.2916)。野生莼菜居群间存在较大的遗传分化(Fst=0.2654),居群内遗传变异(76.99%)大于居群间变 异(23.01%),居群内变异是野生莼菜的主要变异来源。群体结构分析表明,莽山的两个莼菜居群在聚类树中单独聚为一类, 且与其他居群遗传差异较大。莼菜栽培品种与野生居群遗传分化较小(Fst=0.0674),说明目前莼菜栽培品种人工驯化程度较 低。并对我国莼菜资源的保护提出了建议。
关键词:  莼菜  居群  资源考察  遗传多样性
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20200529001
投稿时间:2020-05-29修订日期:2020-06-29
基金项目:国家特色蔬菜产业技术体系(CARS-24-A-02);农业农村部农作物种质资源保护项目(19200368)
Investigation and Genetic Diversity of Wild Brasenia schreberi in China
ZHU Hong-lian1, DU Juan2, LIU Zheng-wei1, SUN Ya-lin1, Li Ming-hua1, PENG Jing1, ZHOU Kai1, KE Wei-dong1
(1.Wuhan Academy of Agricultural Sciences;2.College of Landscape and Horticulture, Southwest Forestry University)
Abstract:
Brasenia schreberi J. F. Gmel. of the family Cabombaceae is a perennial aquatic plant under first-level national protection in the wild in China. Its young stems and leaves are used as vegetables. It has been also cultivated in China for about 1800 years for its young stems and leaves as a vegetable, now widely grown in Leibo in Sichuan Province, Lichuan in Hubei Province, Shizhu in Chongqing Municipality, Taihu in Jiangsu Province, and Hangzhou in Zhejiang Province. In order to understand the current status of its wild populations in China, we carried out on-site investigation and collection in Hunan, Jiangxi, Yunnan, and Heilongjiang provinces. The genetic diversity of B. schreberi was then analyzed for six cultivars preserved in the National Germplasm Wuhan Aquatic Vegetable Collection and 27 samples newly collected from six wild populations, with the simplified genome-sequencing technology SLAF-seq. The wild populations of B. schreberi were more diverse than cultivated varieties in many phenotypic traits (such as the color of the rolling leaf, the color of the lower surface of the leaf, the leaf size, and the mucilage thickness). Molecular analysis revealed a rich genetic diversity in B. schreberi (π = 0.3456), with the wild populations (π = 0.3386) higher than the cultivated varieties (π = 0.2916), which is consistent with the phenotypic trait analysis. B. schreberi displayed great genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.2654) among the wild populations, with higher genetic variation within the populations (accounting for 76.99%) than among the populations (accounting for 23.01%), indicating that the within population variation was the main contributing factor. Using high-quality SNP loci, the nearest neighboring method was used to construct the clustering tree, with the total 33 samples divided into two groups. The first group contained two Mangshan populations. The second group included the other four wild populations and all the six cultivars. The samples from two Mangshan populations were mixed with each other, indicating relatively frequent gene exchange between the two groups and very low genetic differentiation. In the other group, wild samples from different populations were well separated, indicating that a certain genetic differentiation existed between those wild populations because of geographical isolation. The PCA and structure analysis all confirmed that the Mangshan samples gather together and were distant from the other samples, indicating an obvious differentiation between the Mangshan populations and the other populations. The genetic differentiation between cultivated varieties and wild populations is small (Fst = 0.0674), indicating a relatively low degree of artificial domestication of the cultivated varieties. This article puts forward some suggestions for the protection of B. schreberi resources in China.
Key words:  Brasenia schreberi  population  resources investigation  genetic diversity

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