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中国野生大豆遗传变异与分化研究进展
李向华, 王克晶
0
(中国农业科学院作物科学研究所)
摘要:
中国野生大豆是栽培大豆的直接祖先种,具有自花授粉和低比率异交的繁殖系统。这种繁殖系统特性使其遗传变异往往表现高的地理空间区域内变异和小的区域间变异、或高的天然居群间变异和小的居群内变异。在个别生态系统或特定地理位置的居群间也出现小的居群间和大的居群内变异的报道,这可能是高强度的基因流超过了环境选择压力、干扰和遗传漂变作用,或与物种传播史上的“基因扩散”有关。野生大豆基因流与地理距离有密切关系。野生大豆种子大小在遗传上存在4种类型,即典型小粒型(百粒重2 g 以下)、中粒型(2.01–2.5 g)、大粒型(2.51–3.0 g)和半野生型(3.01 g 以上)。野生大豆种内主要是典型野生型(Glicine soja)和半野生型(G. gracilis)的遗传分化。野生和半野生型的遗传分界线是2.51-3.0 g,目前将3.0 g 百粒重作为定位半野生型和野生型的标准是合理的。部分中粒型(2.01–2.5 g)和绝大多数大粒型(2.51–3.0 g)野生大豆起源于野生和栽培大豆的杂交后代。
关键词:  遗传变异  遗传多样性  遗传结构  野生大豆
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20200515003
投稿时间:2020-05-15修订日期:2020-05-15
基金项目:物种资源保护专项
Research Progress of Genetic Variation and Differentiation in Chinese Wild Soybean (Glycine soja)
LI Xiang-hua, WANG Ke-jing
(Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences)
Abstract:
Chinese wild soybean is the direct progenitor of cultivated soybean, having a self-pollinating reproduction system with a low outcrossing rate. This feature would make wild soybean have higher and lower amounts of genetic variation within and between geographical spaces or lower and higher amounts of genetic variation within and between populations. However, sometimes there are higher and lower amounts of genetic variation within and between populations, which may be caused by the stronger gene flow over the effects from environmental stresses, disturbance, and genetic drift or associated with the historical gene dispersal. Gene flow in the wild soybean is closely related to geographical distance. Chinese wild soybean has 4 clear genetic categories: small-seeded (100-seed weight under 2.0 g), medium-seeded (100-seed weight of 2.01–2.5 g), large-seeded (100-seed weight of 2.51–3.0 g) and semi-wild(100-seed weight over 3.0 g) types. The genetic differentiation between typical wild and semi-wild types is the main factor within the species. The genetic boundary of G. gracilis is at the range of 2.51–3.0 g 100-seed weight of Glicine soja, and therefore the classification of G. gracilis as over 3.0 g 100-seed weight against typical wild soybean is reasonable. Some medium-seeded plants and the majority of the large-seeded ones likely have originated from the segregation of hybrid progenies between wild and cultivated soybeans.
Key words:  genetic variation  genetic diversity  genetic structure  wild soybean