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王克晶, 李向华
近年来本所野生大豆课题团队对中国野生大豆皂角苷研究有了初步进展,中国野生大豆显示丰富的皂角苷成分种类及遗传变异。这些进展包括如下:在国际上已知的5 组类别大豆皂角苷之外鉴定出第6组,即?组新类别,同时发现4 个新皂角苷成分A-αg、K-αg、KA-αg 和HAb-αg,其中A-αg 化合物被确认是A 组、α组和?组皂角苷的总前体;发现了控制C-22 碳位阿拉伯糖结合的Sg-7 位点;鉴定出若干A0突变体、稀有的AuAe 表型和高Bd 含量的变异种质;发现α组皂角苷成分的单独存在个体。皂角苷成分表型及基因可以作为新的化学成分有关的遗传标记,通过此标记分析了中国野生大豆的遗传多样性及地理分化;我国南方区域野生大豆AaBc 表型及Sg-4 基因具有东亚最高频率,意味着是更具有原始祖本特征的区域群体,东亚野生大豆皆来源于我国华南及南方地区野生大豆扩散。
关键词:  皂角苷  化学结构  遗传标记  遗传多样性  野生大豆
Research Progress in Saponins in Chinese Wild Soybean
WANG Ke-jing, LI Xiang-hua
(Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences)
In recent years, the research on soyasaponins in Chinese wild soybean has achieved some preliminary progresses, showing that Chinese wild soybeans were rich in the components and genetic variation of saponin composition. These progresses were as followings: identified a new sixth category of group-? in addition to the reported five groups of soyasaponin; found four new components A-αg, K-αg, KA-αg and HAb-αg, of which the A-αg component was first recognized to be the total precursor of the groups A, α and ?; discovered a Sg-7 locus controlling arabinose bonding to the C-22 position of the aglycone; identified a number of A0 mutants and rare accessions with AuAe phenotype and high-content Bd component and found the individuals with separate group α components in Chinese wild soybeans. Soyasaponin phenotypes and genes could be used as genetic markers of chemical composition, by which we analyzed the genetic diversity and geographical differentiation in Chinese wild soybeans. Chinese southern wild soybeans had the highest frequencies of AaBc phenotype and Sg-4 gene in eastern Asia, which implied that the southern wild soybeans were a regional population possessing more primitive ancestral characteristics, and that eastern Asian wild soybeans originally came from southern China.
Key words:  saponin  chemical structure  genetic marker  genetic diversity  wild soybean