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丰富的植物遗传资源为作物育种和遗传研究提供广阔的遗传基础,然而资源庞大的数量也给植物遗传资源的收集、保存、研究和利用带来了困难。Frankel首先提出并与Brown等人完善了核心种质(core collection)的概念,即通过一定的方法从整个种质资源中选择一部分样本,以最小的资源数量和遗传重复,尽可能最大限度的代表整个资源的多样性。核心种质的提出,为遗传资源的研究和利用提供了崭新的解决途径。目前,已在多年生野生大豆、硬粒小麦、花生等20种植物上开展了核心种质研究。本围绕核心种质具有四个显特点即代表性、实用性、有效性、动态性,介绍在不同植物构建核心种质时,所利用的数据、分组原则及取样方法等,并介绍了核心种质的评价进展。通过比较发现,不同植物在构建核心种质各有区别,但是以根据地理来源分组,按聚类法取样为主。目前,对植物核心种质的研究,多处于取样策略的研究阶段。对建成的核心种质评价研究较少,主要集中在农艺性状遗传多样性方面的验证,而时分子水平的验证较少,构建的核心种质还有待于实践的检验。
关键词:  核心种质 遗传多样性 代表性 实用性 有效性 动态性 植物
基金项目:国家“973”计划资助项目 (G19980 10 2 0 3)
Advances in Research on Core Collection of Plant Germplasm Resources
Abundant plant genetic resources provide broad genetic foundation for plant breeding and genetic research. However, its huge size brings difficulties in collecting, preservation, evaluation and utilization of plant germplasm resources. The concept of core collection was firstly proposde by Frankel in 1984 and developed it with Brown in 1989.It represents to select a sub-set from the whole germplasm by certain methods to represent a maximum of the genetic diversity of the whole collection with a minimum of accessions and a minimum of redundancy. The concept of core collection provides a new strategy for studying and utilizing plant germplasm. So far, core collection was established for more than 20 species in the world, such as wild soybean, durum wheat and peanut. Based on four prominent characteristics i.e. representative, practicality, availability and dynamics, this paper introduced the utilization of data, principls of sampling, methods of sampling, parameters estimation for the establishment of core collection. It was found that the methods for establishing core collection were different for various plants. For most of plants which have bean established core collections, stratification according to geography and agro-ecological uniform zones was used. Clustering was most common method in the establishment of core collection of most plants. At present,research is focusing on the strategy of sampling for the establishment of core collection. There is little research about the evaluation of core collection. Most studies make use of agronomic traits to evaluate the representation of core colletion, few reports concentrated on molecule evaluation.The core collections which have been established need to be tested in the future.
Key words:  Core collection,Genetic diversity,Representation,Practicality,Availability,Dynamic