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中国普通野生稻重要农艺性状的遗传多样性研究
宋玥1, 李飞1, 王君瑞1, 乔卫华1, 王新华2, 徐志健3, 吕树伟4, 汤翠凤5, 王记林6, 刘文强7, 朱业宝8, 郑晓明1, 杨庆文1
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(1中国农业科学院作物科学研究所,北京 100081; 2海南省农业科学院粮食作物研究所,海口 571100;3广西农业科学院水稻研究所, 南宁 530007; 4广东省农业科学院水稻研究所, 广州 510640;5云南省农业科学院生物技术与种质资源研究所,昆明 650205;6江西省农业科学院水稻研究所,南 昌 330200;7湖南省农业科学院水稻研究所,长沙 410125;8福建省农业科学院水稻研究所,福州 350003)
摘要:
普通野生稻(Oryza rufipogon Griff)是水稻(O. sativa L.)的野生近缘种,是水稻遗传改良的重要资源。本研究以 覆盖除云南外的中国普通野生稻分布区的 1777 份种质资源为对象,进行抽穗期、花药长度、粒长、粒宽和粒重等 5 个重要农 艺性状的遗传多样性、主成分和方差分析。结果表明,中国普通野生稻具有丰富的遗传多样性,抽穗期、花药长度、粒长、 粒宽和粒重的变异系数分别是 0.06、0.17、0.07、0.09 和 0.16,多样性指数分别是 1.30、1.47、1.45、1.39 和 1.33。主成 分分析表明第 1, 2 主成分主要与产量性状有关,累计贡献率达到 83.31%;第 3 主成分主要与抽穗期有关,前三个主成分的 累积贡献率约为 95%。主成分分析结合聚类分析,发现普通野生稻群体可以分成 3 个类群,类群 1 主要来自江西和湖南,类 群 2 主要来自于广西和广东大部分区域和福建,类群 3 主要来自于海南和广东南部区域的湛江市,样品的聚类关系和地理位 置成正相关。以地理群为因素对 5 个重要农艺性状进行方差分析,结果显示花药长度、抽穗期和粒长变异在不同地理群间的 变异占总变异的比例分别为 69.09%、57.98%和 77.56%,而粒宽变异所占比例为 6.20%,花药长度,抽穗期和粒长变异在普通 野生稻地理群间差异起决定作用。
关键词:  普通野生稻  种质资源  农艺性状  遗传多样性
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20200206003
投稿时间:2020-02-06修订日期:2020-02-07
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31970237,31670211);中国农业科学院科技创新工程
Genetic Diversity Analysis of Important Agronomic Traits of Common Wild Rice Germplasm Accessions Collected from China
SONG Yue1, LI Fei1, WANG Jun-rui1, QIAO Wei-hua1, WANG Xin-hua2, XU Zhi-jian3, LV Shu-wei4, TANG Cui-feng5, WANG Ji-lin6, LIU Wen-qiang7, ZHU Ye-bao8, ZHENG Xiao-ming1, YANG Qing-wen1
(1Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081;2Institute of Food Crops, Hainan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Haikou 571100; 3Rice Research Institute, Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanning 530007; 4Rice Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou 510640; 5Biotechnology and Germplasm Resources Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming 650205; 6Rice Research Institute, Jiangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanchang 330200; 7Rice Research Institute, Hunan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Changsha 410125; 8Rice Research Institute, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou 350003)
Abstract:
Oryza rufipogon Griff, which is recognized as the genetically closest wild species of cultivated rice (O. sativa L.), is an important resource valuable in rice improvement. In this study, 1777 O. rufipogon germplasm accessions, which were collected from China, were subjected for the genetic diversity analysis of five important agronomic traits including heading date, anther length, grain length, grain width and 100-grain weight. The principal component and variance analysis showed an abundant diversity, with the coefficient of variations on heading date, anther length, grain length, grain width and 100-grain weight of 0.06, 0.17, 0.07, 0.09 and 0.16, respectively. The diversity index of five phenotypic traits was 0.69, 0.72, 0.70, 0.65 and 0.71, respectively. By principal component analysis, the first and second components were found to be mainly associated with yield traits, with the cumulative contribution rate of 83.31%. The third principal component was mainly related to the heading date, with the cumulative contribution rate of 11.69%. The common wild rice collection was classified into three clusters, which were roughly explained by the collection sites. For examples, the samples of cluster1 were mainly collected from Jiangxi and Hunan; the samples of cluster2 were mainly collected from most areas of Guangxi and Guangdong and Fujian; the samples of cluster3 were mainly collected from Hainan and the southern part of Guangdong (Zhanjiang). The analysis of variance of five important agronomic traits based on geographical location showed that the variation of anther length, heading date and grain length among different geographical groups accounted for 69.09%, 57.98%, and 77.56% of the total variation, and Grain width variation accounted for 6.20%. Variations in anther length, heading date, and grain length played a decisive role in diversification among common wild rice geographic groups.
Key words:  Oryza rufipogon  germplasm resource  agronomic trait  genetic diversity

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