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  • 师立松,高媛,周瑢,等.芝麻蒴果性状研究进展与展望[J].植物遗传资源学报,2020,21(1):40-48.    [点击复制]
  • SHI Li-song,GAO Yuan,ZHOU Rong,et al.Current Advances and Future Perspectives on Capsule Characters of Sesame(Sesamum indicum L.)[J].植物遗传资源学报,2020,21(1):40-48.   [点击复制]
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芝麻蒴果性状研究进展与展望
师立松, 高媛, 周瑢, 张秀荣, 张艳欣
0
(中国农业科学院油料作物研究所 / 农业农村部油料作物生物学与遗传育种重点实验室,武汉 430062)
摘要:
芝麻是传统优势特色油料作物,我国是世界芝麻主产国之一,也是全球第一消费国和进口国,选育稳定高产的优良 品种是芝麻产业发展的重要任务。构成芝麻产量的主要因素是蒴果数、每蒴果粒数和粒重,芝麻蒴果性状对于产量的形成至 关重要,蒴果性状的研究为高产、适宜机械化芝麻品种的遗传改良奠定了理论基础。本文对芝麻蒴果相关性状研究进展进行 了综述。主要分数量性状和质量性状综述了蒴果形态性状研究;从蒴果大小和物质积累的变化规律方面综述了蒴果生长发 育研究;还综述了芝麻蒴果成熟开裂、组织结构、抗裂蒴性鉴定及抗裂品种选育研究;以及蒴果性状相关遗传学、分子标记和 基因研究等。最后对芝麻蒴果性状今后研究的重点任务和发展方向等进行了展望,提出应继续加强芝麻蒴果相关性状研究, 尤其是蒴果大小、单株株蒴果数、每蒴果粒数、抗裂蒴性等的研究,通过蒴果的改良提高芝麻单株产量,助力高产芝麻新品种选 育;并聚焦于高抗裂蒴芝麻基因资源的精准鉴定、深入发掘与创新利用,选育抗裂蒴新品种,破解芝麻抗裂蒴性遗传改良的科 学难题,推动芝麻生产机械化进程;同时深化芝麻抗裂蒴性功能标记和基因的发掘与应用研究,解析抗裂蒴性分子机理,应用 于芝麻分子育种。
关键词:  蒴果  形态  生长发育  开裂  组织结构  遗传学  分子生物学
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20191207001
投稿时间:2019-12-07修订日期:2019-12-13
基金项目:农业农村部农作物种质资源保护与利用专项(2019NWB033);国家现代农业产业技术体系(CARS-14);中国农业科学院科技创新工程(CAAS-ASTIP-2016-OCRI);国家油料种质资源共享服务平台(NICGR2019-014)
Current Advances and Future Perspectives on Capsule Characters of Sesame(Sesamum indicum L.)
SHI Li-song,GAO Yuan,ZHOU Rong,ZHANG Xiu-rong,ZHANG Yan-xin
(Oil Crops Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Improvement of Oil Crops,Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs,Wuhan 430062)
Abstract:
Sesame is a traditional preponderant oil-bearing crop. China is one of the world’s main producers of sesame,and also the world’s first consumer and importer. Breeding for stable and high-yield varieties will benefit for the development of sesame industry. The sesame yield is contributed by three main components including the number of capsules,the number of seeds per capsule and the weight of seeds. The capsule characters thus become important for the yield production,and unlocking the genetic mechanism will provide a theoretical foundation in the genetic improvement of sesame varieties with high yield and being suitable for mechanized. In this paper,the research progress on the characters of sesame capsule is reviewed. Morphological characters of capsule are reviewed as quantity and quality characters,studies of capsule growth and development are reviewed from capsule size and material accumulation. In addition,research on the ripening and dehiscence,tissue structure,identification of capsule dehiscence resistance and the breeding of varieties with capsule dehiscence resistance,and the capsule characters genetics,related molecular markers and genes are also discussed.Furthermore,the key tasks and future research focuses on sesame capsule characters have been prospected. We suggest to constantly support the studies of sesame capsule related characters,especially for capsule size, number of capsules per plant,number of seeds per capsule,and capsule dehiscence resistance. Improvement of the single plant yield of sesame might become a potential in breeding of new varieties with high yield. It is also suggested to focus on precise identification,exploration and innovative utilization of sesame gene resources with high resistance to capsule dehiscence,to focus on breeding new varieties with capsule dehiscence resistance,and then cracking the scientific problem of sesame genetic improvement of capsule dehiscence resistance,finally, the mechanization process of sesame production will be promoted. Simultaneously,we will deepen researches on discovery and application of functional markers and genes,and analyzing the molecular mechanism of capsule dehiscence resistance,furthermore apply to sesame molecular breeding.
Key words:  capsule  morphology  growth and development  dehiscence  tissue structure  genetics  molecular biology

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