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转基因小麦外源基因向近缘野生植物漂移的风险评估--以转TaDREB4小麦为例
姜奇彦, 牛风娟, 孙现军, 胡正, 张辉
0
(中国农业科学院作物科学研究所)
摘要:
国际上转基因作物种植面积不断增加,外源基因漂移的生态风险越来越受到人们的关注。花粉传播的方式是小麦与其近缘野生植物间发生基因漂移的主要途径。调查发现,我国小麦与近缘野生植物空间分布重叠,黄淮海麦区一些近缘野生植物与小麦花期相遇。采集这些近缘野生植物的种子并通过人工杂交获得与转基因小麦的杂交后代,人工杂交成功率为2.18-68.61%。但由于出苗率低(0-2.86%)或花粉败育等原因,杂交种无法自然繁殖。通过用小麦或小麦近缘野生植物亲本进行回交,结果发现,只有小亚山羊草与小麦的杂交种与转基因小麦回交成功,回交成功率0.24%。这些杂交后代种子种于田间后全部死亡。完全自然状态下,连续监测5 年,在近缘野生植物中也没有检测到任何基因漂移事件的发生。说明转基因小麦外源基因向近缘野生植物漂移的风险极低。
关键词:  转基因小麦  近缘野生植物  基因漂移  风险评估
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20191127002
投稿时间:2019-11-27修订日期:2020-04-28
基金项目:转基因玉米小麦大豆环境安全评价技术项目(2016ZX08011-003);“十二五”国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0100304);国家自然科学 基金项目(31601302);中国农业科学院科技创新工程(作物种质资源品质和抗逆性状评价团队)项目
Risk Assessment of Exogenous Gene Flow from TaDREB4 Transgenic Wheat to Wild Relatives
JIANG Qi-yan, NIU Feng-juan, SUN Xian-jun, HU Zheng, ZHANG Hui
(Institute of Crop Science, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences)
Abstract:
With the frequent use and increasing growing area of transgenic crops on a global scale, gene flow in transgenic crops has aroused great biosafety concerns. Pollen dispersal is the primary mode of gene transfer from a cultivated crop to the wild relatives.In our investigation it was found that wild relatives of wheat occur in sympatry with cultivated wheat in China and some wild relatives in wheat-growing region of Huanghuaihai flower synchronously with cultivated wheat. We collected and grew the seeds of these wild relatives and made hybridization with transgenic wheat MG176. The rates of successful artificial hybridization were 2.18-68.61%.However, it was difficult for the hybrids to reproduce naturally on account of low seedling emergence rates (0-2.86%) and pollen abortion. Backcrosses of the hybrids with either wheat MG176 or wild relative parent failed to produce seed except (Aegilops columnaris × MG176) × MG176 which had a seed set of 0.24% with zero seedling emergence when planted in the field. In simulated natural condition, no gene flow events were detected in the related wild relatives of wheat through 5 years of continuous monitoring.We concluded that the risk of exogenous gene flow from transgenic wheat to wild relatives was extremely low.
Key words:  transgenic wheat  wild relatives  gene flow  risk assessment

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