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荔枝种质资源矮化相关形态指标的鉴定及综合评价
胡福初1, 陈哲1, 赵杰堂2, 冯学杰1, 吴凤芝1, 范鸿雁1, 王祥和1, 胡桂兵2
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(1.海南省农业科学院热带果树研究所/海南省热带果树生物学重点实验室/农业部海口热带果树科学观测实验站;2.华南农业大学园艺学院)
摘要:
为建立准确、可靠的荔枝矮化性状鉴定评价方法,并对部分荔枝种质资源的矮化程度进行综合评价。以 120 份荔 枝种质资源为研究材料,测定了可能与矮化性状相关的枝梢长度、枝梢直径、复叶柄长度、复叶柄直径、节间长度、叶片长 度、叶片宽度和叶片厚度等 8 个形态指标,采用相关性分析、正态分布检验、隶属函数、主成分分析相结合的方法,对 120 份 荔枝矮化相关形态指标进行鉴定、筛选以及矮化程度的综合评价。结果表明:枝梢长度等 8 个相关形态指标均具有较好的遗 传多样性,符合或近似符合正态分布特点;除了叶片厚度之外,其余 7 个指标之间几乎都存在着显著或极显著的相关性,进 一步经主成分分析,获得 2 个主成分可解释相关指标 72.738%的原始数据信息量,初步明确了枝梢长度等(叶片厚度除外)7 个相关性状作为荔枝矮化综合评价的主要形态指标,可用于有效评价荔枝种质的矮化性状;矮化综合评价结果将 120 份荔枝 种质划分为 5 个等级,其中 Ⅰ 级(矮化)9 份,Ⅱ 级(半矮化)10 份,Ⅲ 级(亚乔化)69 份,Ⅳ 级(乔化)25 份,Ⅴ 级 (极乔化)7 份,筛选出‘糯米糍’、‘庙种糯’、‘紫娘喜’、‘鸭姆笼’、‘农美 12 号’、‘KOM’等一批矮化或半矮 化的种质资源。以上结果说明采用枝梢长度等 7 个主要形态指标为测定参数,基于主成分分析的综合评价方法进行荔枝矮化 性状的鉴定评价是准确可靠的,为荔枝矮化资源的深入发掘和开发利用提供了科学依据。
关键词:  荔枝  矮化性状  形态指标  鉴定  综合评价
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20190918002
投稿时间:2019-09-18修订日期:2019-10-11
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31701885);国家荔枝龙眼产业技术体系(CARS-32)
Identification and Comprehensive Evaluation of Dwarfing-related Morphological Indicators in Litchi Germplasm Resources
HU Fu-chu1, CHEN Zhe1, ZHAO Jie-tang2, FENG Xue-jie1, WU Feng-zhi1, FAN Hong-yan1, WANG Xiang-he1, HU Gui-bing2
(1.Institute of Tropical Fruit Trees, Hainan Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Tropical Fruit Tree Biology of Hainan Province/Investigation Station of Tropical Fruit Trees of Ministry of Agriculture;2.College of Horticulture, South China Agricultural University)
Abstract:
In order to establish an accurate and reliable identification method for dwarf-traits of litchi, and comprehensively evaluate the dwarf degree of part of the litchi germplasm resources, 120 litchi germplasm resources were used as materials to investigate and determine eight candidate dwarfing-related morphological indicators of length of new branch (LNB), diameter of new branch (DNB), length of common petiole (LCP), diameter of common petiole (DCP), length of internode (LI), length of single leaf (LSL), width of single leaf (WSL) and thickness of single leaf (TSL) with correlation analysis, normal distribution test, membership function, and principal component analysis. The results showed that all the 8 morphological indicators had good genetic diversity, fitting or approximating the normal distribution characteristic. Except for TSL, the other seven indicators had significant or extremely significant correlations. With principal component analysis, two principal components were obtained to explain 72.738% of the original data information, and seven indicators (excluding TSL) were preliminarily identified as the main morphological indicators of the comprehensive evaluation of litchi dwarfing, which could be used to effectively evaluate the dwarf traits of litchi germplasms. After comprehensive evaluation of dwarfing, the 120 litchi germplasms were divided into 5 grades, including 9 germplasms in grade I (dwarf), 10 in grade II (semidwarf), 69 in grade III (subarboreous), 25 in grade IV (arboreous), and 7 in grade V (very arboreous). According to this evaluation approach, we screened out a number of dwarf and semi-dwarf germplasm resources such as ‘Nuomici’, ‘Miaozhongnuo’, ‘Ziniangxi’, ‘Yamulong’, ‘Nongmei 12 Hao’, and ‘KOM’. The above results indicated that based on the determination and analysis of the seven major morphological indicators, the comprehensive evaluation method of litchi dwarf degree was accurate and reliable, which would provide the scientific basis for more in-depth exploration and development of litchi dwarf resources.
Key words:  litchi  dwarf traits  morphological indicators  identification  comprehensive evaluation

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