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保靖黄金茶1号杂交创新利用研究
李赛君, 雷雨, 段继华, 黄飞毅, 罗意, 康彦凯, 丁玎, 陈宇宏, 董丽娟
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(湖南省农业科学院茶叶研究所/国家茶树改良中心湖南分中心/农业部湖南茶树及茶叶观测试验站)
摘要:
本研究选择主要经济性状优良的福鼎大白茶等 6 个茶树品种为母本、具“黄金韵”但适应性一般的保靖黄金茶 1 号为父本,采用人工杂交方法,开展资源创新利用研究,以期达到品种改良目的。试验通过研究保靖黄金茶 1 号花粉生活力、 不同杂交组合结实率、杂种 F1代成苗率、F1代优良单株选择率等,发现保靖黄金茶 1 号花粉生活力强,当天新鲜花粉生活力 达 94.22%,在常温、4℃和-20℃条件下最长分别可以存放 7d、30d 和 40d;6 个杂交组合结实率为 15.25%(碧香早)~31.32% (福鼎大白茶),平均结实率 21.88%,成苗率为 50.77%(碧香早)~66.65%(铁观音),平均成苗率 59.62%,不同组合及不 同年份间结实率和成苗率均无显著差异;三次优株选择和无性繁殖能力鉴定后,共获得 60 个新株系,选优率为 2.35%,远高 于优异资源自然杂交后代选优率(0.04%)。经生化成分、产量、品质等综合评价后选择布置区域试验的 3 个新品系,生长势 均优于父本保靖黄金茶 1 号,感官品质优异,尤以香气突出,达到“扬长补短”种质创新目的。
关键词:  保靖黄金茶1号  花粉活力  杂交  选优率  创新利用
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20190916002
投稿时间:2019-09-16修订日期:2019-11-06
基金项目:中央引导地方资金(2019XF5041);湖南省农业科技创新项目(2018ZD05-1)
Research on the Hybridization and Innovation of Baojing Huangjincha 1
LI Sai-jun, LEI Yu, DUAN Ji-hua, HUANG Fei-yi, LUO Yi, KANG Yan-kai, DING Ding, CHEN Yu-hong, DONG Li-juan
(Tea Research Institute, Hunan Academy of Agriculture Sciences/National Center for Tea Improvement, Hunan Branch/Hunan Observation and Experiment Station of Tea Plant and Tea Processing, Ministry of Agriculture)
Abstract:
In order to produce the elite germplasm resource for tea breeding, we deployed the artificial hybridization approach to generate the F1 hybrids by crossing six elite tea varieties including Fuding Dabaicha (mother) with another variety Baojing Huangjincha 1, which showed a specific phenotype "golden rhyme" but weak adaptation ability. We found that Baojing Huangjincha 1 pollen exhibited a strong living force whose fresh pollen life force reached to 94.22% by taking researching on Baojing Huangjincha 1 pollen life force, different hybrid combination strong rate, hybrid F1 generation seedling rate, F1 generation excellent single plant selection rate, etc.. Under room temperature, 4℃ and -20℃ conditions, its pollen was able to survive up to 7d, 30d and 40d, respectively. The seed setting rates of six hybrid combinations were variable from 15.25% (Bixiangzao) to 31.32% (Fuding Dabaicha) with the average of 21.88%, while the seedling rates were arranged from 50.77% (Bxiangzao) to 66.65% (Tieguanyin) with a mean value of 59.62%. No significant difference was observed in seed setting rate and seedling rate among different treatments (combinations and years). By taking use of three rounds of selecting excellent strains and identifying asexual reproduction ability, a total of 60 strains were finally accepted with a selection rate of 2.35%. The rate of elite hybrids was much higher than that of naturally-occurring hybridization offspring (0.04%). Furthermore, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of biochemical composition, yield and quality related traits in selected hybrids. Three new strains, which were subjected for the regional test, showed the growth potential and excellent sensory quality (especially with aroma prominent), much better than the father Baojing Huangjincha 1.
Key words:  Baojing Huangjincha 1  pollen viability  hybridization  innovative utilization

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