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甘蔗双腋芽突变体表型鉴定及应用潜力评估
陆鑫, 毛钧, 刘新龙, 徐超华, 应雄美, 刘洪博, 林秀琴, 蔡青
0
(云南省农业科学院甘蔗研究所/云南省甘蔗遗传改良重点实验室)
摘要:
蔗茎腋芽是甘蔗无性繁殖的主要器官,充足的下芽量保证了甘蔗的高产稳产,但同时也造成用种量大、种植成本高,是生产上一直难以平衡的问题。本研究以大茎野生种创新利用过程中获得的 1 份蔗茎孪生双腋芽的突变体种质云蔗 07-86为材料,对其双腋芽表型、稳定性、可遗传性及对产量的影响进行鉴定和测试。研究发现该突变体的双腋芽以孪生、邻接和分离 3 种方式随机着生于蔗茎中上部,通常从地上第 6 茎节开始发生双腋芽,发生频率自下而上呈现从无到有、先增后减的 总体趋势,且播种后 2 个腋芽均能正常萌发;通过连续多年的无性繁殖大田试验观察发现,双腋芽性状能够在繁殖群体中稳定保持;利用该突变体与 32 份不同的甘蔗种质进行杂交,仅在 11 个组合中的极少数杂交后代无性系上观察到双腋芽现象,表明双腋芽性状可以通过杂交传递给后代,但双腋芽在后代群体中出现的概率极低;以相同下芽量分别将突变体单、双腋芽种茎进行种植,发现不同腋芽表型类型的有效茎数、蔗茎产量差异不显著,表明双腋芽突变体具备保证下芽量而降低用种量的应用潜力。本研究为后期开展双腋芽形成候选基因挖掘及双腋芽突变育种利用奠定基础。
关键词:  甘蔗  双腋芽突变体  表型鉴定  应用潜力评估
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20190621002
投稿时间:2019-06-21修订日期:2020-02-05
基金项目:云南省科技计划项目(2016FB067);国家自然科学基金(31560416);国家农作物种质资源共享服务平台(NICGR-2019-44);农业农村部政府购买服务项目(19190167)
Phenotypic Identification and Evaluation of Application Potential in Double Axillary Buds Mutant of Sugarcane
LU Xin, MAO Jun, LIU Xin-long, XU Chao-hua, Ying Xiong-mei, LIU Hong-bo, LIN Xiu-qin, CAI Qing
(Sugarcane Research Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Yunnan Key Laboratory of Sugarcane Genetic Improvement)
Abstract:
The axillary bud on cane stalk is the main reproductive organ for sugarcane vegetative reproduction. To ensure enough bud setts at planting is an essential prerequisite for high and stable cane yield, but too large bud setts also mean high planting cost. This is a common dilemma in sugarcane production. In previous studies on innovative utilization of hybrid from Saccharum robustum Brandes and Jeswiet ex Grassl, one mutant with double axillary buds (YZ07-86) was exploited. In this study, the twin axillary buds phenotypic frequency, stability, hereditability and its yield impact were determined. The double axillary buds were found to be randomly inserted from the 6 th stem node above ground to stem tip in three ways (twins, adjoined and separated), with an overall tendency of increasing first and then decreasing. Importantly, both of the double axillary buds are generally able to germinate after planting. Under a test of field-conditional asexual reproduction over years, the double axillary buds was found to be stably inherited in the population. By making crosses with 32 different sugarcane varieties, a few of progeny individuals with the double axillary buds was observed from 11 hybridization combinations. That suggested that the trait of double axillary buds was able to be transmitted by hybridization to the progeny with a very low frequency. In the yield comparison test with same amount of buds but planting single or double axillary bud setts respectively, no significant difference in millable stalks and cane yield was observed, suggesting a significant applied potential with the mutant in the sugarcane seed market. This study could establish a foundation for the following research such as the mining for candidate genes of double axillary buds and the practical use in sugarcane breeding.
Key words:  sugarcane  double axillary buds mutant  phenotypic identification  evaluation of application potential

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