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云南省古茶树资源调查与分析
蒋会兵1, 唐一春1, 陈林波1, 王平盛1, 蔡新2, 虞富莲3, 杨柳霞4, 王兴华4, 李崇兴5, 江鸿键6, 王本忠7, 段学良8, 李静9, 何月波10, 王东11, 李少峰12, 卜保国13
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(1.云南省农业科学院茶叶研究所,云南勐海 666201;2.云南农业大学龙润普洱茶学院,云南昆明,650201;3.中国农业科学院茶叶研究所,浙江杭州 310008;4.云南省普洱市茶树良种场,云南普洱 665000;5.云南省临沧市茶叶科学研究所,云南临沧 677000;6.云南省临沧市发展生物办公室,云南临 沧 677000;7.云南省文山州农业局,云南文山 663000;8.云南省保山市农业局,云南保山 678000;9.云南省西双版纳州农业局 云南勐海 666100;10.云南省红河州农业局,云南蒙自 661100;11.云南省德宏州农业局,云南芒市 678400;12.云南省大理州农业局,云南大理 671000;13.云南省楚雄州农 业局,云南楚雄 675000)
摘要:
为更好地保护和开发利用古茶树资源,2010—2017 年对云南省 12 个地区 58 个县/市的古茶树资源进行了全面普查,依据《Flora of China》英文修订版分类确立了古茶树资源物种名录,建立初步的古茶树资源数据信息库。以此为基础,利用地理信息系统和统计学分析了云南古茶树资源种类组成、地理分布特征、生境类型及形态多样性。结果表明:云南古茶树种类多,调查共获得古茶树资源分布点 474 个,记录样本植株 2570 份,隶属 7 种 6 变种;古茶树资源分布广而不均,主要分布于滇西、滇南、滇东南及滇中哀牢山山脉,滇东南是古茶树物种多样性的分布中心,滇西是特有种的分化中心,云南古茶树资源的地理分布可能存在滇西—大理茶(Camellia taliensis)、滇南—普洱茶(C. sinensis var. assamica)和滇东南—厚轴茶(C. crassocolumna) 3 个现有分布中心;古茶树资源生境复杂多样,可大致分为原生林、次生林和高山旱地等 3 类,不同生境分布的古茶树种类及其生长状况有差异;古茶树资源具有丰富的形态多样性,其描述型性状多样性指数为 0.58~2.05,数值型性状变异系数为 4.37%~51.03%,总体上营养器官的变异性高于花部器官。本工作为进一步探讨云南地区古茶树资源的系统演化、多样性保护及合理利用提供了重要的本底资料。此外,根据古茶树资源现状,初步提出了一些保护利用建议。
关键词:  古茶树  资源调查  地理分布  生境  形态多样性
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20190422001
投稿时间:2019-04-22修订日期:2019-05-21
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31760224)
Survey and Analysis of Ancient Tea Plant Resources in Yunnan Province, China
JIANG Hui-bing1, TANG Yi-chun1, Chen Lin-bo1, WANG Ping-sheng1, CAI Xin2, YU Fu-lian3, YANG Liu-xia4, WANG Xing-hua4, LI Chong-xing5, JIANG Hong-jian6, WANG Ben-zhong7, DUAN Xue-liang8, LI Jing9, HE Yue-bo10, WANG Dong11, LI Shao-feng12, BO Bao-guo13
(1.Tea Research Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Yunnan Menghai 666201;2.Longrun Pu-erh Tea College, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201;3.Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310008;4.Tea Varity Multiplication Farm,Yunnan Province Puer City, Yunnan puer 665000;5.Tea Research Institute,Yunnan Province Lincang City, Yunnan Lincang 677000;6.Biology Industrial Of ice,Yunnan Province Lincang City, Yunnan Lincang 677000;7.Agricultural Bureau, Yunnan Province Wenshan Prefecture, Yunnan Wenshan 663000;8.Agricultural Bureau, Yunnan Province Baoshan City, Yunnan Baoshan 678000;9.Agricultural Bureau, Yunnan Province Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan Jinghong 666100;10.Agricultural Bureau, Yunnan Province Honghe Prefecture, Yunnan Mengzi 661100;11.Agricultural Bureau, Yunnan Province Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan Mangshi 678400;12.Agricultural Bureau, Yunnan Province Dali Prefecture, Yunnan Dali 671000;13.Agricultural Bureau, Yunnan Province Chuxiong Prefecture, Yunnan Chuxiong 678400)
Abstract:
In order to protect and utilize ancient tea plant resources, general survey of ancient tea plant resources were conducted in 58 counties of 12 prefectures from Yunnan province from 2010 to 2017. Following the instruction of the Flora of China, a database including these resources and the geographical distribution database were established. On this basis, the ancient tea plant resources in Yunnan were studied about their species composition, geographical distribution characteristics, habitat types and morphological diversity, with the help of geographic information system and statistical analysis. As a result, 474 spots of ancient tea plant resources and 2570 ancient tea plants, which are clarified in 7 species and 6 variants, were identified, implying an abundance of ancient tea plants distributed in this area. These resources were often distributed in Western Yunnan, Southern Yunnan, Southeastern Yunnan and Ailao Mountain Chain. Out of that, Southeastern Yunnan was recognized as a center of the species diversity, and Western Yunnan was a center of endemic species. Three geographic distribution centers containing Camellia taliensis, C. sinensis var. assamica and C. crassocolumna were proposed, consisting of Western Yunnan, Southern Yunnan, and Southeastern Yunnan. Ancient tea plant resources were found with diversifying habitats, and they distributed in primary forest, secondary forest and alpine cultivated land areas. The genetic diversity index of the descriptive characteristics were ranged from 0.58 to 2.05. The abundant morphological diversity was observed with the variation coefficient of 4.37% to 51.03%. A higher variability of vegetative vs. reproductive organs were visualized. Taken together, this study provided important information for the evolution, diversity conservation and rational utilization of ancient tea plant resources in Yunnan, which allowed raising some suggestions on the future protection and exploitation.
Key words:  ancient tea plant  resource investigation  geographical distribution  habitat  morphological diversity

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