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青稞氨基酸组成与营养价值评价
翟会生1, 李俏1, 张玉红2, 曾兴权2, 唐亚伟2, 尼玛扎西2, 邓光兵1, 龙海1, 潘志芬1, 余懋群1
0
(1.中国科学院成都生物研究所 农业中心;2.西藏自治区农牧科学院)
摘要:
为了解青稞氨基酸的组成及营养品质,本研究测定了 72 份青稞材料籽粒的 17 种氨基酸(色氨酸除外)含量,对青稞的氨基酸进行了营养价值评价,通过氨基酸含量对供试青稞材料进行了聚类分析并比较育成与地方品种的氨基酸组成差异。结果表明,青稞氨基酸总含量平均为 87.45 mg/g DW, 变幅为 47.8~178.7 mg/g DW,其中必需氨基酸含量占 37.15%,谷氨酸的含量最高且变异大,蛋氨酸含量最低,赖氨酸含量变异小,91.67%的青稞材料的第一限制性氨基酸为赖氨酸。青稞氨基酸的贴近度为 0.903,与世界粮农组织(FAO)、世界卫生组织(WHO)、联合国大学(UNU)提出的模式蛋白质的必需氨基酸组成较接近,氨基酸营养均衡性(73.14)较高。非必需氨基酸占青稞总氨基酸含量的 62.85%,其中鲜味和甜味氨基酸含量分别为 26.58 mg/g DW 和 21.85mg/g DW,分别占总氨基酸含量的 30.04%和 24.43%。不同青稞材料的氨基酸含量和营养价值有很大的差异,地方品种各氨基酸含量均高于育成品种。供试材料中有 4 份青稞的氨基酸营养价值及风味氨基酸含量均较高。研究结果可为优质氨基酸组成的青稞选育及青稞加工提供指导。
关键词:  青稞  氨基酸  营养品质
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20190102002
投稿时间:2019-01-02修订日期:2019-02-24
基金项目:中国科学院“西部之光”人才培养计划项目(Y6C401);西藏科技厅项目(XZ2018B01NA01)
Evaluation of the Amino Acids Composition and Nutrition Value of Tibetan Hulless Barley
ZHAI Hui-sheng1, LI Qiao1, ZHANG Yu-hong2, ZENG Xing-quan2, TANG Ya-wei2, NYIMA Tashi2, DENG Guang-bing1, LONG Hai1, PAN Zhi-fen1, YU Mao-qun1
(1.Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Sichuan Chengdu;2.Tibet Academy of Agriculture and Animal Sciences, Tibet Lhasa)
Abstract:
In order to make better use of Tibetan hulless barley, the content of 17 amino acids (except tryptophan) for 72 hulless barley accessions was determined, and the nutritional value and flavor of amino acids was evaluated by WHO/FAO/UNU model. The cluster analysis was performed using the amino acid composition, and the difference of nutrition between landraces and modern varieties was surveyed. The total content of amino acids in hulless barley was 87.45 mg/g DW, with a range from 47.8 to 178.7 mg/g DW. The indispensable amino acid accounted for 37.15%, which was higher than that of oat, hulled barley and wheat. The Tibetan hulless barley exhibited the highest content (23.27%) of glutamine with large variation (CV=0.33), and the lowest methionine (1.75%). The composition of amino acids in Tibetan hulless barley was similar to that in hulled barley and wheat. The Tibetan hulless barley had higher content of lysine compared with other cereal crop grains. The close degree (U) of hulless barley was 0.903, and 69.44% of the tested accessions was more than 0.900. That indicated that the composition of indispensable amino acid of Tibetan hulless barley were close to the model protein and thus had higher nutritional value. The Tibetan hulless barley genotypes presented broad variation on content of dispensable amino acids (28.7~118 mg/g DW), with the average of 55.09 mg/g DW. The content of amino acid contributing freshness was 26.58 mg/g DW and that for sweetness was 21.85mg/g DW. For nutrient balance, hulless barley was higher among cereal crops, the value of Score of Ratio Coefficient was 73.14. The content of amino acids in landraces/historic varieties was higher than that of improved varieties. Notably, four accessions were identified with the qualified nutritional value and flavor amino acid content. Thus, by unlocking the content of amino acids in hulless barley accessions, this study provided valuable insights to select elite genotypes in breeding for high-quality food hulless barley varieties.
Key words:  hull-less barley  amino acids  nutritional quality

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