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600份葡萄种质资源果柄耐拉力鉴定评价
王鹏1,2, 樊秀彩2, 张颖2, 李民2, 刘崇怀2, 姜建福2, 李秀珍1
0
(1河南科技大学林学院,河南 洛阳 471000;2中国农业科学院郑州果树研究所,河南 郑州 450009)
摘要:
葡萄(Vitis L.)是我国重要的经济果树之一,部分品种经过长途运输和贮藏后,易脱粒和腐烂,失去商品价值,选育和推广耐贮品种是解决这一问题的有效措施之一。为探究不同葡萄种质资源果柄耐拉力特性,以绯红、蜜尔紫、红巴拉多、灰比诺、沪培 2 号和京可晶 6 个质地不同葡萄品种为材料,分析其果实发育过程中的果柄耐拉力变化情况;以国家果树种质郑州葡萄圃的 600 份葡萄种质资源为试材,利用数显拉力计对其果柄耐拉力进行了鉴定评价,同时分析了果柄耐拉力与果柄、果蒂、果刷等性状的相关性。结果表明:6 个品种果实发育过程中果柄耐拉力呈先下降后趋于稳定的趋势,硬肉品种果柄耐拉力均强于软肉品种。600 份葡萄种质资源的果柄耐拉力变化范围在 0.72~9.16N 之间,耐拉力分布连续且符合正偏态分布。经过聚类分析,将果柄耐拉力分为强(P>6N)、中(3N<P≤6N)、弱(P≤3N)3 个等级,所占比例分别为 2.5﹪、23.8﹪和 73.7﹪,说明供试材料整体的果柄耐拉力较弱,其中果柄耐拉力强的种质有红地球、牡丹红、芳香等。果柄耐拉力与单粒重,果柄、果刷长,单位果柄、果蒂和果刷横截面面积等,均呈显著正相关,与单位面积果刷承受自身重量呈显著负相关。通过系统的鉴定评价,得到 15 份果柄耐拉力强的种质,以期为耐贮葡萄新品种的选育提供参考。
关键词:  葡萄种质  果柄耐拉力  鉴定评价  分级
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20181213002
投稿时间:2018-12-13修订日期:2019-01-10
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31601718)国家现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-29-yc-1);中国农业科学院科技创新工程专项经费项目(CAAS-ASTIP-2018-ZFRI)
Identification and Evaluation of Pulling Force of Fruit Stalk for 600 Grape Germplasm Resources
WANG Peng1,2, FAN Xiu-cai2, ZHANG Ying2, LI Min2, LIU Chong-huai2, JIANG Jian-fu2, LI Xiu-zhen1
(1College of Forestry,Henan University of Science and Technology,Luoyang 471000;2Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Zhengzhou 450009)
Abstract:
Grape (Vitis L.) is one of the most important economical fruit trees in China. However, a shattering rachis-like phenotype in some varieties is un-desirable, particularly during long-distance transport and storage. Breeding for storage-resistant varieties is one of the most effective measures to prevent this problem. In this study, six hundreds of accessions from Zhengzhou National Grape Germplasm Repository were evaluated for the pulling force of fruit stalk with a digital tension machine. Whether pulling force of fruit stalk correlated to fruit handle, fruit pedicle and fruit brush lengths were analyzed as well. The results showed that the pulling force of six grape varieties showed a decreasing trend during fruit ripening. The pulling force of fruit stalk of hard flesh is stronger than that of soft flesh varieties. The pulling force of 600 grape accessions ranged from 0.72 to 9.16N, showing a continuous distribution consistent with positive skewness distribution. The pulling force was distributed into weak (P≤3N), medium (3N<P≤6N) and strong (P>6N) 3 classes, with respective proportion of 73.7%, 23.8% and 2.5%. It showed that most grape accessions tested in the germplasm resources have weak pulling forces. Several grape varieties showed strong pulling force of fruit stalk, including Red Globe, MuDanhong, Mathias Aromatic and so on. The pulling force of fruit stalk in different varieties was positively correlated with the single grain weight, fruit stalk and fruit brush lengths, unit cross-section area of fruit stalk, fruit pedicle and fruit brush lengthes. Moreover, the pulling force negatively correlated with the ratio of unit cross-section area of fruit brush versus berry weight. Taken together, this research provided valuable information on characterizing the pulling force of grape germplasm resources in future breeding for new grape varieties.
Key words:  grape germplasm  pulling force of fruit stalk  grape transport  identification and evaluation  grading

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