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  • 唐 宇,邵继荣,周美亮.中国荞麦属植物分类学的修订[J].植物遗传资源学报,2019,20(3):646-653.    [点击复制]
  • TANG Yu,SHAO Ji-rong,ZHOU Mei-liang.A Taxonomic Revision of Fagopyrum Mill from China[J].植物遗传资源学报,2019,20(3):646-653.   [点击复制]
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中国荞麦属植物分类学的修订
唐 宇1, 邵继荣2, 周美亮3
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(1.四川旅游学院食品学院;2.四川农业大学生命科学学院;3.中国农业科学院作物研究所)
摘要:
荞麦是一种蓼科(Polygonaceae family)荞麦属(Fagopyrum Mill)的古老作物,在全世界,尤其是东亚及东欧地区广泛 种植。数千年以来,荞麦都是中国凉山等高海拔地区的主要粮食作物,其营养丰富,其中富含的芦丁等生物活性成分还具有 抗氧化、抗肿瘤的功效。荞麦的栽培种甜荞和苦荞已经被广泛传播,但野生荞麦却只在特定区域分布。中国西南地区,包括 四川,云南,贵州各省以及西藏自治区,是公认的世界荞麦属植物的起源中心,分布中心和多样化中心,荞麦种质资源非常 丰富。目前已有文献报导的荞麦属植物超过 20 种,他们中的绝大多数已在中国西南地区被发现,该地区的地理环境非常复杂, 孕育了极具多样性的野生荞麦资源。但截至目前,这些已报导的种还没有经过科学的归类,同种异名的现象比较严重,本研 究团队从 2004 年至今,在中国西南地区进行了多年多次的野外考察和标本采集工作,并在室内进行花和果实的解剖观察,获 得了大量的荞麦属植物分类学数据。基于这些数据和荞麦染色体数量分析,经馆藏标本和模式照片的对比,并综合国内外相 关文献,本文对中国荞麦属植物进行了分类学修订,将产自中国的荞麦属28 个种归并为21个:即将Fagopyrum megaspartanium Q. F. Chen,F. pilus Q. F. Chen 并入 F. cymosum (Trrev)Meisn 作为异名;F. pleioramosum Ohnishi,F. wenchuanense J.R.Shao 并入 F. caudatum (Samuelsson) A. J. Li 作为异名;F. callianthum Ohnishi 并入 F.qiangcai D.Q.Ba 作为异名;F. zuogongense Q.F.Chen 并 入 F. homotropicum Ohnishi 作为异名;F. longzhoushanense J.R.Shao 并入 F. pugense T.Yu 作为异名。重新制定了 21 个种的分种 检索表。本文将有助于重新认识荞麦属植物的进化地位,并为后续进一步探究属中各个种的亲缘关系奠定了基础。
关键词:  荞麦属  分类修订  中国  分种检索表
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20181210001
投稿时间:2018-12-10修订日期:2019-02-21
基金项目:国家重点研发计划中欧政府间合作项目(2017YFE0117600);国家自然科学基金面上项目(31871536);中国科协中国作物学会青年托举计划(2017QNRC182)
A Taxonomic Revision of Fagopyrum Mill from China
TANG Yu1, SHAO Ji-rong2, ZHOU Mei-liang3
(1.College of Food Science and Technology, Sichuan Tourism University;2.College of Life Science, Sichuan Agricultural University;3.Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences)
Abstract:
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum ssp.) is an ancient crop belonging to Fagopyrum Mill, Polygonaceae family, which has been widely cultivated around the world, especially in East Asia and East Europe. Buckwheat is the major food crop in the high-attitude regions, including the Liangshan region of China for thousands of years. Buckwheat is rich in nutrition and considered as a functional food for the high contents of rutin and other bioactive compounds that are antioxidant and anti-tumor. Two species of cultivated buckwheat, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (Fagopyrum tataricum), are widely spread, while the wild buckwheat resources only distribute in some certain regions. Southwest China, including Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou Province and Tibet Autonomous Region, is widely known as the center of origin, distribution and diversity of wild buckwheat plants. So far, more than 20 buckwheat species have been named and classified, most of which have been found in Southwest China. The extremely complicated geographical environment of this area renders a number of diversified wild buckwheat resources. However, the scientific classification of Fagopyrum Mill species is deficient, and some wild species are synonyms. Since 2004, our research team continually made field investigation and specimens collection works in Southwest China, anatomic observation of flowers and fruits were also made in our lab. Based on these morphological data as well as buckwheat chromosome number detecting results, comparing with other specimens, model photos and pervious articles, the Fagopyrum Mill was taxonomic revised and the number of species were adjusted from 28 to 21, namely, Fagopyrum megaspartanium Q. F. Chen and F. pilus Q. F. Chen were treated as synonyms of F. cymosum (Trrev)Meisn; F. pleioramosum Ohnishi and F. wenchuanense J.R.Shao were treated as synonyms of F. caudatum (Samuelsson) A. J. Li; F. callianthum Ohnishi was treated as a synonym of F. qiangcai D.Q.Bai; F. zuogongense Q.F.Chen was treated as a synonym of F. homotropicum Ohnishi; F. longzhoushanense J.R.Shao was treated as a synonym of F. pugense T.Yu. The key to species of Fagopyrum were also revised and presented. Our results provided a better understanding of the evolution position of Fagopyrum Mill and built a framework to learn the genetic relationships between buckwheat species.
Key words:  Fagopyrum Mill  Taxonomic revision  China  Key to species

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