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  • 楚乐乐,罗成科,田蕾,等.植物对碱胁迫适应机制的研究进展[J].植物遗传资源学报,2019,20(4):836-844.    [点击复制]
  • CHU Le-le,LUO Cheng-ke,TIAN Lei,et al.Research Advance in Plants, Adaptation to Alkali Stress[J].植物遗传资源学报,2019,20(4):836-844.   [点击复制]
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植物对碱胁迫适应机制的研究进展
楚乐乐, 罗成科, 田蕾, 张银霞, 杨淑琴, 李培富
0
(宁夏大学农学院/宁夏优势特色作物现代分子育种重点实验室,银川 750021)
摘要:
碱胁迫包含离子毒害、渗透胁迫和根外高pH值(pH>8.5)伤害等多重胁迫,是一种主要的非生物胁迫,严重危害着植物的生长发育和作物的产量和品质。随着我国盐碱化土地不断扩增,当下生态系统平衡也遭到越来越严重的破坏,而相对于盐胁迫,目前对碱胁迫的认识还比较肤浅,对植物碱胁迫适应机制更是知之甚少。因此,了解并掌握碱胁迫以及植物对碱胁迫做出应答的适应机制,对挖掘耐碱种质资源改善生态环境,以及培育耐碱性作物品种、改良盐碱地具有重要的现实意义。基于近年来国内外研究报道,本文简要概述了盐、碱胁迫的定义与区别;总结了碱胁迫条件下,植物不同器官和细胞器的形态变化;阐述了植物通过细胞代谢,化学物质的合成与积累,以及活性氧的清除等途径响应于碱胁迫的生理适应机制;并从耐碱相关基因的克隆与功能鉴定、利用转录组学技术挖掘耐碱相关候选基因、Ca2+信号系统介导的植物耐碱性等三个方面揭示了植物应答碱胁迫的分子适应机制;指出尽管目前获得的耐碱相关候选基因较多,但真正分离克隆和功能鉴定到的基因较少。本文还对以修饰组学为主的多组学在植物耐碱机制中的研究前景做出展望,以期为挖掘植物新的耐碱相关基因并阐明其耐碱调控机制提供理论依据。
关键词:  植物  碱胁迫  生理机制  分子机制
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20181129004
投稿时间:2018-11-29修订日期:2019-04-30
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(31560297)
Research Advance in Plants, Adaptation to Alkali Stress
CHU Le-le, LUO Cheng-ke, TIAN Lei, ZHANG Yin-xia, YANG Shu-qin, LI Pei-fu
(Agricultural College of Ningxia University/Key Laboratory of Modern Molecular Breeding of Dominant Characteristic Crops in?Ningxia, Yinchuan 750021)
Abstract:
Alkali stress, including layers of sresses such as ion toxicity, osmotic stress and extraneous high pH (pH >8.5) injury, is a major abiotic stress that seriously endangers the growth and development of plants and the yield and quality of crops. With the continuous expansion of salinized land in China, the ecological system balance is increasingly seriously damaged. Compared with salt stress, the current understanding of alkali stress is relatively superficial, and the adaptation mechanism of plant alkali stress is even less well understood. Therefore, it is of great practical significance to understand and master the adaptive mechanism of alkali stress and plant response to alkali stress, to explore alkali-resistant germplasm resources for future improving ecological environment, and to cultivate alkali-resistant crop varieties for improving saline-alkali land. Based on the domestic and international progress recently, this paper briefly describes the definition and difference of salt and alkali stress. Morphological changes of different organs and organelles under alkali stress are summarized. The physiological adaptation mechanism of plants to alkali stress through cell metabolism, chemical synthesis and accumulation, and scavenging of reactive oxygen species is described. In addition, the molecular adaptation mechanisms of plants in response to alkali stress are indicated with three aspects: cloning and functional identification of alkali-tolerant genes, utilization of transcriptome technology to explore alkali-tolerant candidate genes, and plant alkali-tolerant mediated by Ca2+ signal system. It is pointed out that although many of candidate genes related to alkali resistance were obtained, fewer genes are actually cloned and explored with functional mechanism. Meanwhile, the research prospect of Multi-Omics which mainly focuses on modification omics in alkali tolerance mechanism of plants are prospected, in order to further provide theoretical basis for exploring new alkali resistance genes and unlocking the functional mechanism.
Key words:  plants  alkali stress  physiological mechanism  molecule mechanism

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