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  • 卢新雄,辛霞,尹广鹍,等.中国作物种质资源安全保存理论与实践[J].植物遗传资源学报,2019,20(1):1-10.    [点击复制]
  • LU Xin-xiong,XIN Xia,YIN Guang-kun,et al.Theory and Practice of the Safe Conservation of Crop Germplasm Resources in China[J].植物遗传资源学报,2019,20(1):1-10.   [点击复制]
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中国作物种质资源安全保存理论与实践
卢新雄, 辛霞, 尹广鹍, 张金梅, 陈晓玲, 王述民, 方沩, 何娟娟
0
(中国农业科学院作物科学研究所,北京100081)
摘要:
我国是作物种质资源大国,目前收集已经保存340 种作物,保存资源总量达50 万份,如何确保安全保存是种质资 源管理的首要课题。自“九五”开始,系统地开展了作物种质资源安全保存理论与技术的研究,首次提出种质安全保存理论, 揭示了种质活力丧失存在关键节点及其生物学机制;明确了发芽率低于关键节点更新,导致群体遗传完整性丧失;提出了种 质安全保存寿命的概念,以及延长安全保存寿命的关键因素。研发了种质活力监测预警、繁殖更新与离体保存等关键技术, 制定了种质资源入库圃保存,监测预警,繁殖更新,离体保存和设施建设等技术规程,创建了中国作物种质资源安全保存技 术体系。该体系应用于全国作物种质资源的保存实践,最大程度延长种质安全保存寿命,并监测预警出需更新的种质,避免 因活力和遗传完整性丧失而导致种质资源“得而复失”,为实现我国作物种质资源长久安全保存提供了有力保障。
关键词:  作物种质资源  安全保存  遗传完整性  监测预警  繁殖更新  离体保存
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20180905001
投稿时间:2018-09-05修订日期:2018-09-05
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划(2013BAD01B01);农业部作物种质资源保护与利用项目(2130135);国家自然科学基金(31371713)
Theory and Practice of the Safe Conservation of Crop Germplasm Resources in China
LU Xin-xiong, XIN Xia, YIN Guang-kun, ZHANG Jin-mei, CHEN Xiao-ling, WANG Shu-min, FANG Wei, HE Juan-juan
(Institute of Crop Sciences, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081)
Abstract:
China has abundant crop germplasm resources. At present, 340 kinds of crops have been collected and a total of 500,000 accessions have been conserved. How to ensure the safe conservation of germplasm resources is the responsibility and mission of the National Crop Genebank of China. Since the Ninth Five-Year Plan, the National Crop Genebank has systematically studied the theories and technologies of the safe conservation of germplasm. We have made breakthroughs on the key technologies of monitoring and early warning, regeneration and in vitro preservation. Based on the above research, we have created a technical system for the safe conservation of crop germplasm resources in China, which has been applied in the nationwide. The technical system would maximum prolong the safe longevity of germplasm, monitor and warn which need to be regenerated in Genebank, for avoiding the loss of germplasm resources due to the loss of vigor and genetic integrity. Therefore, it may provide a reliable guarantee for the safe conservation and effective utilization of crop germplasm resources in China.
Key words:  crop germplasm resources  safe conservation  critical node  genetic integrity  monitor and warn  in vitro preservation

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