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  • 曾艳华,谢和霞,程伟东,等.广西玉米种质资源系统调查与收集[J].植物遗传资源学报,2019,20(3):654-661.    [点击复制]
  • ZENG Yan-hua,XIE He-xia,CHENG Wei-dong,et al.Systematic Field Survey and Collection of Maize Germplasm Resources in Guangxi[J].植物遗传资源学报,2019,20(3):654-661.   [点击复制]
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广西玉米种质资源系统调查与收集
曾艳华, 谢和霞, 程伟东, 江禹奉, 周锦国, 谢小东, 谭贤杰, 周海宇, 覃兰秋
0
(广西壮族自治区农业科学院玉米研究所,南宁530007)
摘要:
“第三次全国农作物种质资源普查与收集行动”广西项目组从2015年11月至2018年7月,采用访问和实地调查相结合的方法,对广西53个县(区)、71个乡(镇)、190个村(屯)的农作物种质资源现状及利用情况进行了系统调查,并对种质资源进行了收集,共收集和征集玉米地方品种资源308份,鉴定评价玉米资源270份。对收集的玉米资源分布特点进行分析,结果表明广西玉米地方品种主要分布于桂西北和桂北地区,桂东和桂东南分布较少。凌云、乐业、田林、凤山、东兰5县最集中。垂直分布结果显示:玉米地方品种分布最集中的区域为海拔 400~800 m的中高海拔山区,占收集总数的39.6%。农艺性状初步鉴定结果:收集的玉米资源数量最多的是糯玉米,籽粒颜色最多的是白粒。鉴定评价获得墨白玉米、九节黄、珍珠糯玉米、忻城白糯、隆安爆玉米和天等爆玉米等6份玉米资源,分别在抗病虫、抗逆、品质等方面有优良的表现,对种质改良,选育高产、优质、广适的新品种有较高的利用价值。本文对收集到的玉米资源种类及利用价值进行了评价,对调查地区玉米地方品种现状、消长情况及原因进行了分析,并对广西玉米地方品种保护和开发利用进行了讨论,为广西玉米种质资源的发掘和创新利用提供参考依据。
关键词:  玉米地方品种  种质资源  普查与收集  优良种质  广西
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.20180828001
投稿时间:2018-08-28修订日期:2019-03-14
基金项目:第三次全国农作物种质资源普查与收集(111721301354052035);广西玉米种质资源收集鉴定与保存(桂科AA17204045-2);玉米种质资源的研究与改良利用(玉 ZX2014004); 玉米优异种质资源挖掘、自交系创制与新品种选育(桂科AA17204064)
Systematic Field Survey and Collection of Maize Germplasm Resources in Guangxi
ZENG Yan-hua, XIE He-xia, CHENG Wei-dong, JIANG Yu-feng, ZHOU Jin-guo, XIE Xiao-dong, TAN Xian-jie, ZHOU Hai-yu, QIN Lan-qiu
(Institute of maize research,Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Nanning 530007)
Abstract:
From November of 2015 to Jul of 2018, as a sub-project of the Third National Survey and Collection Action on Crop Gemplasm Resources, we conducted a systematic investigation on the status quo and utilization of crop germplasm resources in Guangxi province, where 190 villages in 71 towns of 52 counties were surveyed. Through visiting and field surveying, a total of 308 maize (Zea mays L.) landraces were collected, among which the phenotypic variation of 270 maize landraces were identified and evaluated. Based on the collection sites, a number of landraces were found in North and Northwest of Guangxi, while fewer accessions were collected from the East and Southeast areas. Particularly, many of accessions were found from counties including Lingyun, Leye, Tianlin, Fengshang and Donglan.The results of vertical distribution showed that the distribution of maize landraces were most concentrated in the middle-high altitude(400~800m) mountain area, which accounted for 39.6% of the total collection.Preliminary identification results of agronomic characters showed that most of the collected maize accessions were waxy corn and white color. Notably, six maize landraces with elite traits were identified, including Mobai maize, Jiu jie huang, Pearl waxy corn, Xincheng white waxy corn, Longan popcorn and Tiandeng popcorn, which were excellent in stress ,diseases and insects resistance and had excellent performances in characters. Those special maize landraces would have a strong prospect for varieties utilization in quality, stress resistance, adaptability and nutrient efficient utilization.In this study,the classification and utilization value of the collected maize were evaluated.Local situation,growth and decline conditions of the maize landraces in the investigated area were analyzed.Besides,the protection and utilization of maize landraces in Guangxi were discussed.It provides a reference for the exploitation and innovative utilization of maize germplasm resources in Guangxi.
Key words:  maize landrace  germplasm resource  survey and collection  elite resources  Guangxi

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