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  • 杨锋,刘志,伊凯,刘延杰,王强,孙建设.东北山定子(Malus baccata (L.) Borkh野生居群表型遗传多样性分析及生态地理分布研究[J].植物遗传资源学报,2015,16(3):490-496.    [点击复制]
  • yang feng.Studies on Geographical Regions and Analysis on Genesis Through Natural Population of ‘Malus baccata (L.) Borkh’ in North-east of China[J].植物遗传资源学报,2015,16(3):490-496.   [点击复制]
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东北山定子(Malus baccata (L.) Borkh野生居群表型遗传多样性分析及生态地理分布研究
杨锋,刘志,伊凯,刘延杰,王强,孙建设
0
(辽宁省果树科学研究所)
摘要:
东北山定子(Malus baccata (L.) Borkh)野生居群集中分布区位于北纬49º11´~50 º40´,东经119°42´~120°16´之间,海拔520m~670m,呈带状分布于大兴安岭西南麓与呼伦贝尔平原交接的河床半湿地,面积约230km2,处于原始野生状态。调查423份自然变异类型表明:树龄最大400年生以上,30~50年生为主体占37%;树姿以直立型与开张型为主,垂枝型占14%;株高与冠径均呈正态分布,矮生型占19.79%;果实颜色由黄经红到紫色变异,浓红型占43.8%,黄色与紫色类型分别占4.5%、3.2%;果实酸、酸甜、甜酸共占总群体的72.9%;自然授粉前提下,平均每花序坐3个果的占47.7%,坐5个果的占26.5%,3.5%的成龄树没有果实;叶形与果形有扁圆、圆、卵圆、长椭圆等,但叶形与果形之间无遗传相关性。群体遗传分析参考国内外研究进展,结合分布区的GPS、河流走向、地貌特征、树龄分布、采访记录等推测:东北山定子是山定子组(Malus baccatus .Jiang)的地理亚种,集中分布于大兴安岭西南麓的山谷间,海拔800m左右,种子经河水、鸟类等作用,延伊敏河、根河、海拉尔河、雅鲁河等流域自然迁徙扩散至海拉尔的黑羊站、蒙古屯、哈克镇,满洲里黑山头口岸的弘吉拉布等地,在近河的山谷地带逐渐适应繁衍形成二级集中分布区。
关键词:  山定子,野生居群,地理分布,群体遗传
DOI:
投稿时间:2014-05-12修订日期:2014-08-10
基金项目:苹果产业体系专项(nycytx-08-01-05);省创新团队-多抗性砧木选育;公益性行业科研专项(201203075-05)
Studies on Geographical Regions and Analysis on Genesis Through Natural Population of ‘Malus baccata (L.) Borkh’ in North-east of China
Abstract:
The concentration distributes area of natural population of Malus baccata (L.) Borkh are locate in N 49º11´~50 º40´,E 119°42´~120°16´, altitude from 620m to 670m, present a form of band and covered the connection of half-moisture land between Foothill of Da Xinganling and Plain of Hu Lunbeier, cover the surface of 230km2. Be preserved naturally. 423 of individuals were tested and indicated that, 1 to 400 years old of tree-age were found, and 37% of them were form 30 to 40 years old. Upright and open were the 2 mainly types in tree’s figure, dropping style take the occupation of 14%. Tree’s height and diameter presented a trend of Positive Tai Distributes, dwarf type were 19.8%. Fruit’s color were found through yellow, red-purple and dark-red took the occupation of 43.8%, yellow 4.5% and purple 3.2%. Acid types including sweet-acid were 72.9% in generally. Under the condition of natural pollinate, 47.7% of them bearing 3 fruits in one inflorescence, 26.5% of them with 5 fruits, and 3.5% with no fruits. The figures of oblate, round, oval and oblong were presented in leaves and fruits, there are no correlations between fruits and leaves. Based on GPS, rivers trend, geomorphology character, tree-age, records compared with genetic analysis and the results of references. We conclud that Malus baccata (L.) Borkh is inferior-geography species of Malus baccatus .Jiang which accumulated in the north-west valleys of ‘Da Xinganling’, altitude on 800m, seeds were carried by rivers and birds, and followed by the rivers of Yi Min, Gen, Hai Laer and Ya Lu, migrating in the towns of Hei Yangzhan, Meng Gutun, Ha Kezhen and Hong Jilabu, which were belonged to the city of Hai Laer and Manzhouli. They were adapted and reproduced, then formed the second class evolution areas.
Key words:  Malus baccata (L.) Borkh  Geographical Regions  Natural Population  Population Genesis

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