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  • 刘崇怀,姜建福,樊秀彩,等.中国野生葡萄资源在生产和育种中利用的概况[J].植物遗传资源学报,2014,15(4):720-727.    [点击复制]
  • 姜建福,樊秀彩,et al.The utilization of Chinese wild grape species in production and breeding[J].植物遗传资源学报,2014,15(4):720-727.   [点击复制]
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中国野生葡萄资源在生产和育种中利用的概况
刘崇怀, 姜建福, 樊秀彩, 张颖
0
(中国农业科学院郑州果树研究所)
摘要:
国是葡萄属植物的原产地之一,原产我国的葡萄野生种有40个左右,具有丰富的遗传多样性,我国的劳动人民自古就有采食葡萄野果的习惯。自从2000多年前葡萄的栽培种—欧亚种传入我国,国内原产野生葡萄逐渐失去重视。但其栽培利用在一些地方一直延续至今。刺葡萄是中国野生葡萄中果粒最大的一个种,因其耐湿和抗病性强,在江西、福建、湖南、贵州等地区一直栽培利用至今。长期以来,原产广西的毛葡萄和东北的山葡萄被用作酿酒原料,生产地方性的葡萄酒。新中国成立以来,野生葡萄在葡萄遗传改良中作用不断得到重视,选育大量的优良单株,培育了一系列的葡萄新品种,在我国葡萄产业发挥过或正在发挥作用。本文对中国野生葡萄资源在遗传改良中及栽培利用成就进行了总结,旨在引起葡萄育种工作者对中国原产野生葡萄的重视,加强中国野生葡萄在葡萄遗传改良中的利用。
关键词:  中国野生葡萄  遗传资源  栽培利用  遗传改良
DOI:
投稿时间:2013-11-18修订日期:2013-12-17
基金项目:
The utilization of Chinese wild grape species in production and breeding
Abstract:
China has a long history in the use of wild Vitis species. In Chinese wild Vitis species, V. davidii has the larger berry size, is disease resistant and tolerant to hot climates and can be used as table grape directly. The people who live in Jiangxi, Jiangsu, Hunan, and Guizhou provinces usually cultivate this kind of wild Vitis as a table grape. The fruit of several wild Vitis species have been used in winemaking in many parts of China, among which V. amurensis is the most valuable one. There are plenty of V. amurensis resources in Changbai Mountain. Some wineries have used this wild Vitis in winemaking for 90 years. The wine made from V. amurensis has good taste with a dark ruby colour, and is a famous local product. Some species have been used as rootstocks and breeding materials for resistance to biotic and abiotic environmental factors. Considerable achievements in studying and utilizing wild grape germplasm resources have been made since the 1950’s. V. amurensis was the first species to be successfully domesticated. Grape researchers did a series of selection and domestication studies on the species in the Northeast part of China, and after many years they had selected a series of fine varieties and types. At the same time, a series of work on cultivation and extention on the varieties of V. amurensis was carried out. Selection studies have also been conducted on V. heyneana Roem. & Schult (V. quinquangularis Rehd. V. 1anata Roxh., V. pentagona Diels & Gilg) in the central part of China. Duaan Winery of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Zaoyang County of Hubei Province and Danfeng County of Shaanxi Province use the fruit of V. quiquangularis to make the special wine. Wineries in Feixian County of Shandong province and Zuopgong County of Tibet use the local wild grapes as wine material.
Key words:  Chinese wild grape species  Genetic resources  Cultivation  Genetic improvement

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