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  • 王述民,李立会,黎 裕,等.中国粮食和农业植物遗传资源状况报告(Ⅱ)[J].植物遗传资源学报,2011,12(2):167-177.    [点击复制]
  • ,et al.Status of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agricultural in China[J].植物遗传资源学报,2011,12(2):167-177.   [点击复制]
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中国粮食和农业植物遗传资源状况报告(Ⅱ)
王述民, 李立会, 黎 裕, 卢新雄, 杨庆文, 曹永生, 张宗文, 高卫东, 邱丽娟, 万建民, 刘 旭
0
(中国农业科学院作物科学研究所)
摘要:
10多年来,中国政府十分重视粮食和农业植物遗传资源的保护和可持续利用,并根据《粮食和农业植物遗传资源全球行动计划》20项优先领域,通过制定和完善相关的法律法规,加强了粮食和农业植物遗传资源的管理;通过培训和科普宣传,提高了公众意识;通过国际合作和协作网建设,实现了信息、人员和植物遗传资源的交流与交换;通过各种国家计划和项目的实施,建立和完善了植物遗传资源保护体系,实现了植物遗传资源的安全保存和可持续利用,为中国乃至世界植物育种和粮食安全发挥了较大作用。尽管中国在粮食和农业植物遗传资源保护和利用方面取得了显著成绩,但还面临许多挑战。需要加强与其他国家和国际组织的合作,获得国外植物遗传资源和相关技术;继续进行植物遗传资源,特别是野生植物遗传资源、边远地区古老农家品种的调查、考察与收集,进一步建设和完善植物遗传资源保护体系,实现本国植物遗传资源的全面保护;系统深入地鉴定评价已保存的植物遗传资源,提供育种家利用,拓宽育种材料的遗传基础;实现更加充分的资源共享和利益分享,进一步提高资源利用效率(1)对主要粮食和农业植物野生种进行了系统调查和编目,建立了116个原生境保护点,包括野生稻、野生大豆、小麦野生近缘植物、野生蔬菜等,有效遏制了野生植物遗传资源的快速灭绝现象。(2)建成和完善了1座国家长期库、1座国家复份库、10座国家中期库、29座省级中期库、32个国家种质资源圃(含2个试管苗库),另外7个种质圃正在建设中。基本形成了较为完善的国家植物遗传资源保护体系,长期保存植物遗传资源397067份。(3)繁殖更新了286604份植物遗传资源,充实了中期库,极大地提高了植物遗传资源分发和供种能力。仅2001-2007年就向全国2650个单位,提供了13.2万份次植物遗传资源。(4)国家投资1.8亿元人民币,于2003年建成了“作物基因资源与基因改良国家重大科学工程”,为植物遗传资源的基因型鉴定、发掘具有重大应用前景的新基因提供了条件平台.(5)通过植物遗传资源的深入鉴定与评价,创造了一大批优异种质,培育了大量植物新品种并应用于生产,提高了植物遗传资源的利用率。同时,中国政府十分重视植物遗传资源的多样性利用,通过不同作物间作套种、同一作物不同品种混合种植,保护了品种的多样性,减少了病虫杂草危害。(6)通过加强植物遗传资源的管理,实现了国内植物遗传资源的共享,扩大了对外交流与交换,为中国乃至世界粮食安全、国民经济又快又好发展、减少贫困、增加农民收入做出了较大贡献。
关键词:  植物遗传资源  多样性  原生境管理  非原生境管理
DOI:
基金项目:农业部作物种质资源保护与利用专项
Status of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agricultural in China
Abstract:
Over a decade, the Chinese government has attached great importance to the conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture (PGRFA). According to 20 priority fields described in the Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (GPA), the Chinese government has formulated and perfected a series of regulations and laws and has strengthened the management for plant genetic resources. Through training and popularization of scientific knowledge related to genetic resources, the public awareness has been promoted. Through the international cooperation and establishment of collaborative networks, it has promoted the exchanges of information, prefessionals and materials. Through the implementation of various national programmes and projects, the conservation system for plant genetic resources has been established and improved gradually to achieve the objectives of safe conservation and sustainable use of plant genetic resources, which has played a great role in plant breeding and food security in both China and the world.(1) A systematic survey and cataloguing for main grain crops and wild species of crops has been undertaken. Totally 116 in situ conservation sites, including wild rice, wild soybean, wild relatives of wheat and wild vegetables etc. has been established. In addition, other 30 in situ conservation sites have been put in plan for construction. Rapid extinction of wild plant genetic resources has been controlled effectively.(2) China has established a long-term national genebank, one national duplication genebank, ten medium-term national gene banks, 29 medium-term provincial genebanks and 32 national gemplasm nurseries (including two in vitro seedling banks). In addition, other seven germplasm nurseries are in building. Thus, a sound system for conservation of national plant genetic resources has been basically formed. Totally 397067accessions of plant genetic resources has been preserved in the long-term genebank and the germplasm nurseries.(3) A total of 286604 accessions of plant genetic resources were multiplied and regenerated in the past ten years, which has enriched the medium-term genebanks and significantly increased the distribution ability of plant genetic resources to breeders and researchers. Only in 2001-2007, 132000 accessions of germplasm resources were provided to 2650 institutions in China.(4) With the investment of 180 million RMB from the State, the National Key Facility of Crop Gene Resources And Genetic Improvement was established in 2003, which provides a excellent platform for genotyping and gene discovery of plant genetic resources.(5) Through in-depth characterization and evaluation of plant genetic resources, a great number of elite germplasm have been screened out and used in the development of new plant varieties widely used in production, leading to the effective increase of the utilization efficiency of plant genetic resources. Meanwhile, through intercropping and rotation between (6) Although China has gained remarkable achievements in conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources, there still are a number of challenges. China needs to strengthen the cooperation with other countries and international organizations, to acquire plant genetic resources and relevant technologies from abroad, to continue the survey, exploration and collecting of plant genetic resources, especially for wild plant genetic resources and landraces which are grown in remote areas of the country, to further establish and perfect conservation systems for plant genetic resources. Therefore, we should systemetically characterize and evaluate plant genetic resources conserved and provide them for the use. The sharing of genetic resources and benefits should be further improved to promote the utilization efficiency of genetic resources in China.By strengthening the management for plant genetic resources, the objectives of sharing the plant genetic resources in the country and expanding the exchanges with foreign countries have been achieved, greatly contributing to food security in both China and the world, rapid development of national economy, and increase of the farmers’ income.different kinds of crops and mix-cropping of different varieties, the diversity of varieties has been conserved and the damages caused by diseases, pests and weeds have been reduced.
Key words:  Plant genetic resources  Diversity  In situ management  Ex situ management

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