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  • 杨奕,马继琼,陈伟,李卫芬,孙一丁,许明辉.云南菜食花植物资源与食花文化调查[J].植物遗传资源学报,2017,18(6):1125-1136.    [点击复制]
  • 杨奕,马继琼.Investigation on Vegetable-Edible Flower Plant Resources and Anthophagy Culture in Yunnan Province[J].植物遗传资源学报,2017,18(6):1125-1136.   [点击复制]
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云南菜食花植物资源与食花文化调查
杨奕1, 马继琼1, 陈伟2, 李卫芬3, 孙一丁1, 许明辉1
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(1.云南省农业科学院生物技术与种质资源研究所/云南省农业生物技术重点实验室/农业部西南作物基因资源与种质创制重点实验室;2.云南省林业科学院;3.云南省农业科学院园艺所)
摘要:
为了摸清云南省菜食花植物资源种类、自然分布与食用地区、食用方法等土著知识,对云南省16个地州102个县(市)农贸市场、地方菜餐馆、民间食花者进行了访问调查,对菜食花植物进行了植物学实地鉴定。调查到云南省菜食花植物140种,隶属56科106属,其中木本植物82种,草本植物58种;人工栽培76种,人工驯化栽培14种,野生资源50种。首次报道苦绳(Dregea sinensis Hemsl.)、云南山楂(Crataegus scabrifolia (Franch.) Rehd.)、滇海水仙花(Primula pseudodenticulata Pax)、长毛黄葵(Abelmoschus crinitus Wall.)、尖叶美容杜鹃(Rhododendron caloplytum var. openshawianum (Rehd. et Wils.) Chamb.)、大纽子花(Vallaris indecora (Baill.) Tsiang et P. T. Li)、大花虫豆(Cajanus grandiflorus (Benth. ex Baker) Vaniot der Maesen)、须弥葛(Pueraria wallichii Cand.)、白花灯笼(Clerodendrum fortunatum Linn.)等9种植物的花可以做菜食用。菜食花植物自然分布区与食用地区并非完全重叠,食用地区一般分布有该植物,而分布有该植物的地区不一定食用;食用种类具有从南向北逐渐减少的特点,与食花植物丰富度和少数民族有一定的关系;食花习俗具有一定的民族性,主要体现食花的种类和烹饪口味上。不同菜食花食用的部位不同,烹饪方式也呈多样化。本文针对食用花传统文化的消失与野生菜食花资源的开发利用提出了相关建议。
关键词:  云南  菜食花植物  资源  少数民族  食花文化
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.06.014
投稿时间:2017-03-30修订日期:2017-06-01
基金项目:“贵州农业生物资源调查”(2012FY110200)
Investigation on Vegetable-Edible Flower Plant Resources and Anthophagy Culture in Yunnan Province
Abstract:
IIn order to understand the state including categories of species, natural distribution, eating areas and cooking methods, of flower vegetable-edible plants, local markets and the restaurants, and some local cosumers were surveyed in 102 counties and cities from 16 prefectures, Yunnan Province. At the same time, the botanical identification of the vegetable-edible flower plants was carried out. A total of 140 species of vegetable-edible flower plants, belonging to 56 families and 106 genera, including 82 species of woody plants and 58 herbaceous plants, 76 species cultivated, 14 domesticated, 50 wild resources, were found in this investigation. There were 9 kinds of plants which were first reported as vegetable-edible flower plants in this article, such as Dregea sinensis Hemsl.、 Crataegus scabrifolia (Franch.) Rehd.、 Primula pseudodenticulata Pax、 Abelmoschus crinitus Wall.、 Rhododendron caloplytum var. openshawianum (Rehd. et Wils.) Chamb.、 Vallaris indecora (Baill.) Tsiang et P. T. Li、 Cajanus grandiflorus (Benth. ex Baker) Vaniot der Maesen、 Pueraria wallichii Cand.、 Clerodendrum fortunatum Linn. For the vegetable-edible flower plants, the natural distribution was not completely along with the edible area. Usually the plants were distributed in the edible area, but vegetable-edible flower plants were not necessarily edible in this area even though they were distributed here. The types of vegetable-edible flower plants decreased from south to north, which showed a certain relationship with the richness of the plants and the minorities in the areas. The types of vegetable-edible flower plants and the taste of its cooking were different while edible parts and cooking methods were also different, which reveal the anthophagy custom nationality. This paper put forward some suggestions on the development and utilization of wild vegetable-edible flower plants by analyzing the disappearing of traditional anthophagy culture.
Key words:  Yunnan province  vegetable-edible flower plants  resources  minority  anthophagy culture

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