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  • 王晓宇,王根全,王节之,郝晓芬,刘鑫,张正,常建忠,王雪梅.四倍体谷子细胞学鉴定及不同倍性谷子孕穗期光合因子日响应差异分析[J].植物遗传资源学报,2017,18(5):830-836.    [点击复制]
  • wangxiaoyu,wanggenquan,wangjiezhi,haoxiaofen,liuxin,zhangzheng,changjianzhong,wangxuemei.Identification of cytology about tetraploid millet and analysis between photosynthetic factors response for diurnal variation of different ploidy at booting stage[J].植物遗传资源学报,2017,18(5):830-836.   [点击复制]
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四倍体谷子细胞学鉴定及不同倍性谷子孕穗期光合因子日响应差异分析
王晓宇,王根全,王节之,郝晓芬,刘鑫,张正,常建忠,王雪梅
0
(山西农业科学院谷子研究所;山西省农业科学院谷子研究所;山西省农业科学院旱地农业研究中心;山东省农业科学院作物研究所)
摘要:
摘要:实验于2013-2015年完成了数据收集、定量分析与统计验证。从形态学方面对谷子栽培种晋谷21号及其四倍体诱变株系进行了比较并从细胞学和解剖学两方面对四倍体株系进行了倍性鉴定。在此基础上,笔者从谷子生理生化表观特征差异作为切入点,研究了不同倍性谷子孕穗期叶片中叶绿素及氮含量差异及各自光合因子日响应特性。结果表明:相较其二倍体对照株,四倍体谷子旗叶宽度增加6.11%,叶形指数由11.82减小到9.25,主茎直径增加13.04%,主穗直径增加5.39%,千粒重增加46.16%,旗叶长度减小17.01%,主茎长度减小23.29%,主穗长度减小5.45,单株主穗重减小24.42%,单穗粒重减小62.47%,结实率减小47.30%。显微扫描结果证明,四倍体谷子花药增大,花粉粒增大、部分干瘪,子房多数呈椭球状,柱头皱缩,不育或不实,生育期延长,种子萌发率低,孕穗期谷子氮吸收和同化能力减弱,叶绿素合成量减少。相较其同源四倍体,在光量子通量密度一定前提下二倍体谷子外部微环境及其自身相关各光合因子彼此间效应与互作更为敏感。四倍体不育程度高,灌浆不充分,同化产物“库”-“源”失衡是谷子同源四倍体谷子孕穗期净光合速率较低的主要内因。四倍体谷子的表型及相关生理机制的变化是基因组组分之间以及核质基因组之间相容性水平的体现,并存在选择压力下的再平衡过程。
关键词:  同源四倍体谷子  倍性鉴定  孕穗期  光合因子
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.05.004
投稿时间:2017-01-06修订日期:2017-04-06
基金项目:高产优质谷子新品种长生10号中试与示范(2014GB2A300004);优质高产多抗谷子新品种选育(20150311006-1)
Identification of cytology about tetraploid millet and analysis between photosynthetic factors response for diurnal variation of different ploidy at booting stage
wangxiaoyu,wanggenquan,wangjiezhi,haoxiaofen,liuxin,zhangzheng,changjianzhong,wangxuemei
(Institute of Millet Science,Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Science;Institute of Crop Science, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Science)
Abstract:
Abstract:Collection of data of phenotype and cytology were collected from 2013 to 2015,including data of photosynthetic factor.Cultivar of Jingu 21 and its autotetraploid are materials of this experimen,We compared them by morphological observation,and ploidy examination is from cytological observation.On the basis of physiological and biochemical characteristics,?experimen study about photosynthetic factor response for diurnal variation of different ploidy.?It turned out that:compared with millet of diploid,tetraploid increased leaf width by 6.11%,increased index of leaf shape from 11.82 to 9.25,increased length of diameter of main stem by 13.04%,increased length of diameter of main?panicle by 5.39%,increased thousand seed weight by 46.16%,decreased leaf length by 17.01%,decreased length of main stem length by 23.29%,decreased length of main panicle length by 5.45%,decreased?panicle?weight by 24.42%,decreased grain?weight?per panicle by 62.47%,decreased fruiting rate by 47.30%.The?results?of?the?microscopy scanning showed that tetraploids had long growth period,globular ovaries,?crenated stigmas,big pollen,some of which are wizened.In addition to these,their seeds have low germination percentage,and their synthetic amounts of chlorophyll and N are small at booting stage.Compared with its tetraploid,photosynthesis factors of diploid affect each other are more sensitive.Unbalance of sink and source is main impact factor to low photosynthetic rate of autotetraploid of induced strains at booting stage.Phenotype of tetraploid is the embodiment of interaction between different genomes,and there must be a rebalancing in its evolution.
Key words:  Autotetraploid of millet  Ploidy determination  Booting stage  Photosynthetic factors

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