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  • 武建勇,王爱华,孟蕊,赵富伟,戴蓉.巴西生物遗传资源获取与惠益分享管理制度研究[J].植物遗传资源学报,2017,18(5):920-924.    [点击复制]
  • wujianyong.Management system of Access to biological genetic and Benefit Sharing in Brazil[J].植物遗传资源学报,2017,18(5):920-924.   [点击复制]
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巴西生物遗传资源获取与惠益分享管理制度研究
武建勇,王爱华,孟蕊,赵富伟,戴蓉
0
(环境保护部南京环境科学研究所 南京;环境保护部环境保护对外合作中心 北京;华南理工大学 广州)
摘要:
巴西是世界上生物多样性最丰富的国家之一,同时也是世界遗传资源的主要提供者。中国同巴西国情相似,本文对巴西遗传资源立法的起源、发展进行系统梳理,对现行法律在遗传资源获取程序、管理机构、惠益分享等方面内容的相关规定进行了整理分析,为国内立法提供一些参考。巴西很早就意识到保护本国生物遗传资源的重要性,为了进一步保护本国的遗传资源,巴西政府于2001年公布了一项《巴西保护生物多样性和遗传资源暂行条例》。随后又对《暂行条例》进行了数十次修订,直到2015年由总统签署形成了以宪法修正案的形式的第13.123号法律。巴西立法对有关概念和术语做了比《名古屋议定书》更为详细的区分和解释,并分别对生物遗传资源与传统知识的获取、审批、转让、惠益分享、行政处罚等内容做出了规定,成立了“遗传资源委员会(CGEN)”,建立了“国家惠益分享基金(FNRB)”。
关键词:  巴西  生物遗传资源  名古屋议定书  获取与惠益分享
DOI:10.13430/j.cnki.jpgr.2017.05.014
投稿时间:2016-11-07修订日期:2017-03-04
基金项目:
Management system of Access to biological genetic and Benefit Sharing in Brazil
wujianyong
(Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, State Environmental Protection Administration)
Abstract:
Brazil is one of the magediversity countries in the world, and it is also the main provider of genetic resources in the world. China and Brazil have a similar conditions, the papers summarize origin and development of legislation of genetic resource in Brazil, analysis the procedure, management mechanism, benefit sharing in existing laws of access to genetic resources and benefit sharing. It will provide some reference for the domestic legislation in China. Brazil was already aware of the importance in protecting their own biological genetic resources. In order to further protect its genetic resources, in 2001, the Brazilian government announced “the provisional protection regulations of biodiversity and genetic resources of Brazil”. Subsequently, the provisional regulations were amended for several times. In 2015, a form of constitutional amendment, the Law 13.123, was signed by the president and issued. Brazilian legislation have more distinguish and explain for the concepts and terminology than those of Nagoya protocol, and made separate provisions for acquisition, approval, transfer, benefit sharing, administrative penalties and other content of the biological genetic resources and traditional knowledge, set up a "Genetic Heritage Management Council (CGEN)", establish “national fund to benefit sharing (FNRB)”.
Key words:  Brazil  Genetic resources  Nagoya protocol  Access and benefit sharing

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